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June 21, 2024 0 Comments

The Semi-Complete List of Cannabis Terpenes

There are more than 200 terpenes found in cannabis and more than 200,000 are found in all of nature. Cannabis contains a wide variety of terpenes, which are aromatic compounds that contribute to its unique smell, flavor, and potential therapeutic effects.

These terpenes not only affect the flavor and aroma of different cannabis strains but also contribute to the overall effects and therapeutic properties through what is known as the “entourage effect,” where different compounds work together synergistically.

In this list, you’ll find the Primary, Secondary, and Less Common terpenes that can be found in cannabis and how their aromas can offer additional healing. This is not a complete list of all terpenes but it does contain the name, aroma, and therapeutic effects of 52 that you would be most likely to find in the most commonly consumed strains of marijuana. Information and research on the remaining terpenes (terpenes found in much lower concentrations) in cannabis is limited and they are often disregarded or unreported due to a lack of reference material. Until more studies are published, we’ll focus on these 52 and their effect.

Primary Terpenes in Cannabis

Myrcene (Beta)

Aroma: Earthy, musky, with a hint of fruity notes.

Effects: Sedative, relaxing, antipsychotic; may enhance the psychoactive effects of THC. The most common terpene. Found in almost 50% of cannabis strains.

Also Found In: Mangos, hops, thyme, lemongrass.

Limonene

Aroma: Citrus (lemon, orange).

Effects: Uplifting, mood-enhancing, anti-anxiety.

Also Found In: Citrus fruits, juniper, peppermint.

Caryophyllene (or Beta-Caryophyllene)

Aroma: Spicy, peppery, woody.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic; interacts with CB2 receptors. The only terpene found to directly interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS, a receptor system found in the human body).

Also Found In: Black pepper, cloves, cinnamon.

Linalool

Aroma: Floral, lavender.

Effects: Calming, anti-anxiety, analgesic.

Also Found In: Lavender, mint, cinnamon, coriander, bergamot.

Pinene

Aroma: Pine, fresh, herbal.

Effects: Alertness, memory retention, anti-inflammatory.

Also Found In: Pine needles, rosemary, basil, dill.

Terpinolene

Aroma: Complex; floral, herbal, and slightly citrusy.

Effects: Sedative, antioxidant, antibacterial.

Also Found In: Lilacs, nutmeg, tea tree, and cumin.

Humulene

Aroma: Earthy, woody, spicy.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, appetite suppressant.

Also Found In: Hops, coriander, cloves, basil.

Ocimene

Aroma: Sweet, herbal, and woody.

Effects: Antiviral, antifungal, decongestant.

Also Found In: Mint, parsley, orchids, basil.

Terpineol

Aroma: Floral, lilac, and citrus.

Effects: Relaxing, antioxidant, antibacterial.

Also Found In: Lilac, pine trees, lime blossoms, eucalyptus.

Geraniol

Aroma: Sweet, floral, rose-like.

Effects: Antioxidant, antibacterial, neuroprotective.

Also Found In: Roses, peaches, citronella, coriander.

Chart of primary, secondary, and less common terpenes found in cannabis.

Secondary Terpenes Found in Cannabis

While these secondary terpenes are present in smaller quantities, they still play a role in shaping the unique characteristics of different cannabis strains and may contribute to the entourage effect, enhancing the therapeutic potential of cannabis.

Camphene

Aroma: Earthy, musky, with notes of fir needles.

Effects: Antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory.

Also Found In: Fir needles, camphor oil, rosemary.

Borneol

Aroma: Minty, camphor-like.

Effects: Sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory.

Also Found In: Rosemary, mint, camphor.

Eucalyptol (Cineole)

Aroma: Spicy, minty, cooling.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, pain relief, antifungal.

Also Found In: Eucalyptus, tea tree, sage.

Sabinene

Aroma: Spicy, woody, citrusy.

Effects: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial.

Also Found In: Norway spruce, black pepper, nutmeg.

Bisabolol (Alpha-Bisabolol)

Aroma: Floral, sweet.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial.

Also Found In: Chamomile, candeia tree.

Guaiol

Aroma: Pine, woody, rose-like.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial.

Also Found In: Guaiacum plant, cypress pine.

Phellandrene

Aroma: Citrus, peppery, minty.

Effects: Antifungal, antibacterial, potential anti-cancer properties.

Also Found In: Eucalyptus, dill, parsley, gingergrass.

Delta-3-Carene

Aroma: Sweet, pungent, citrus.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, may help with bone health.

Also Found In: Pine, cedar, rosemary.

Isopulegol

Aroma: Minty, cooling.

Effects: Gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral.

Also Found In: Mint plants.

Pulegone

Aroma: Minty, camphor.

Effects: Sedative, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (which can improve cognitive function).

Also Found In: Pennyroyal, rosemary, catnip.

Valencene

Aroma: Sweet citrus.

Effects: Reduces inflammation, and repels insects, some studies say it helps to fight skin cancer.

Also Found In: Grapefruits and tangerines.

Phytol

Aroma: Sweet floral fragrance.

Effects: Pain relief, reduces stress, promotes healthy sleep patterns.

Also Found In: Jasmine flowers, green tea plants, parsnips, white cabbage, and raspberries.

Fenchol

Aroma: Woody, citrus.

Effects: Anti-microbial, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. Can have an antibiotic component when combined with Linalool terpene. Also has a stimulating effect versus a sedative effect like other terpenes.

Also Found In: Fennel, basil, eucalyptus leaves, wild celery, nutmeg, aster flowers, and citrus fruits.

Menthol

Aroma: Minty and refreshing.

Effects: Kills bacteria and reduces inflammation.

Also Found In: Peppermint and corn mint.

Terpinene

Aroma: Earthy, smoky.

Effects: Anti-tumor properties.

Also Found In: Allspice, eucalyptus, citrus, juniper, cardamom, and marjoram.

Isoborneol

Aroma: Sweet and musky.

Effects: Early studies have found that it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties.

Also Found In: Allspice, eucalyptus, citrus, juniper, cardamom, and marjoram.

Isoborneol (crystals)

Aroma: Sweet and musky.

Effects: Antiviral, inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 1.

Also Found In: Mugwort, wormwood, sagebrush, ginger.

Cymene

Aroma: In small amounts citrusy, woody, sweet, and earthy. But, in large amounts it can have an overwhelming smell like turpentine.

Effects: Laboratory research has concluded that cymene has antiviral, anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.

Also Found In: Thyme, oregano, and in small amounts in coriander and cumin.

Less Common Terpenes Found in Cannabis

Octanol

Aroma: Earthy, musky, with notes of fir needles.

Effects: Antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory.

Also Found In: Fir needles, camphor oil, rosemary.

Cedrene

Aroma: Spicy, minty, cooling.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, pain relief, antifungal.

Also Found In: Eucalyptus, tea tree, and sage.

Geranyl Acetate

Aroma: Floral, fruity, sweet, rose.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, repellent, anti-microbial neuropathy.

Also Found In: Chamomile, citronella, candeia tree, lemongrass, sassafras, and roses.

Bergamotene

Aroma: Pine, woody, rose-like.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial.

Also Found In: Guaiacum plant, cypress pine.

Camphor

Aroma: Citrus, peppery, minty.

Effects: Antifungal, antibacterial, potential anti-cancer properties.

Also Found In: Eucalyptus, dill, parsley, and gingergrass.

Alpha Cedrene

Aroma: Fresh Cedar.

Effects: Anti-microbial, antifungal, anti-cancer.

Also Found In: Cedar trees.

Alpha Phellandrene

Aroma: Black pepper, spicy, citrus, minty.

Effects: Antidepressant, expectorant, anti-cancer.

Also Found In: Eucalyptus.

Alpha Pinene

Aroma: Turpentine, pine, dill.

Effects: Asthma, bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory, aids memory.

Also Found In: Parsley, Pine, and Rosemary.

Alpha Terpineol

Aroma: Pine, smoky.

Effects: Antibiotic, antioxidant, anti-tumor, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, anxiolytic..

Also Found In: Lilacs, pine trees, lime blossoms, and eucalyptus sap.

Beta-Caryophyllene

Aroma: Peppery, spicy, earthy.

Effects: Anti-epilepsy, anti-anxiety. Helps with chronic pain, muscle spasms, and insomnia.

Also Found In: Black pepper, cloves, cinnamon.

Beta Pinene

Aroma: Turpentine, pine, dill.

Effects: Bronchodilator, asthma, anti-inflammatory, aids memory.

Also Found In: Pine, rosemary, parsley.

Cadinene

Aroma: Woodsy.

Effects: Antifungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial.

Also Found In: Cade Juniper.

Caryophyllene Oxide (Crystals)

Aroma: Peppery, spicy, earthy.

Effects: Antifungal, anti-coagulant.

Also Found In: Cloves, pepper, lemon balm, lavender, rosemary.

Citral

Aroma: Citrusy, lemony.

Effects: Antinociceptive, helps with acute chronic pain.

Also Found In: Lemongrass.

Citronellol

Aroma: Floral.

Effects: Anti-microbial, antifungal, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant.

Also Found In: Rose, geraniums, lemongrass.

Eugenol

Aroma: Spicy, cloves.

Effects: Antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, anti-stress, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic (low cholesterol)

Also Found In: Cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, bay leaf.

D-Limonene

Aroma: Citrusy.

Effects: Antidepressant, GERD, assists with skin absorption of other terpenes.

Also Found In: Citrus fruits, juniper.

Farnesene

Aroma: Woodsy, citrus, floral, herbal.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, calming, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, sedative.

Also Found In: Hops, ginger, turmeric, ylang-ylang, German chamomile.

Gamma Terpinene

Aroma: Woodsy, lemon-lime, tropical herbal.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory.

Also Found In: Citrus fruits.

Nerol

Aroma: Sweet, fresh.

Effects: Antidepressant, anti-anxiety, antiseizure, menopausal symptoms, lowers blood pressure, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, antioxidant.

Also Found In: Lemongrass, hops.

Nerolidol

Aroma: Citrusy, lemony.

Effects: Sedative, potent antifungal and anti-malarial, antioxidant.

Also Found In: Citrus fruits, jasmine, tea tree.

Nookatone (Crystals)

Aroma: Grapefruit, citrus.

Effects: Repellent.

Also Found In: Grapefruit, Alaska yellow cedar trees, and vetiver.

Orange Terpenes

Aroma: Orange, citrus.

Effects: Antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory.

Also Found In: Oranges.

Para-Cymene

Aroma: Oranges, turpentine.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, prevents acute lung injury, antibiotic.

Also Found In: Cumin, thyme, coriander, oregano.

How to store cannabis for optimal terpene longevity

To maintain the effectiveness of the terpenes found in cannabis, it’s important to store the flower in environments with cool temperatures, low light, and average or less-than-average amounts of humidity and oxygen. Exposure over long periods to excessive heat, humidity, oxygen, or direct light can degrade the terpenes and render any THC in the flower ineffective.

What are Terpenoids?

The words terpene and terpenoid are increasingly used interchangeably, although these terms do have different meanings. The main difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (meaning the only elements present are carbon and hydrogen); whereas, terpenoids have been denatured by oxidation (drying and curing the flowers) or chemically modified.

What are Flavonoids?

Flavonoids are one of the largest nutrient families known to scientists and include over 6,000 already-identified family members. About 20 of these compounds, including apigenin, quercetin, cannflavin A and cannflavin B (so far unique to cannabis), β-sitosterol, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol, luteolin, and orientin have been identified in the cannabis plant. Flavonoids are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory health benefits, as well as their contribution of vibrant color to many of the foods we eat (the blue in blueberries or the red in raspberries).

Some flavonoids extracted from the cannabis plant have been tested for pharmacological effects. The clinical findings are promising, but further research is needed to fully understand what role flavonoids play in the overall therapeutic effects of cannabis treatment, especially how they interact with cannabinoids by either synergistically enhancing them or reducing their effects.

How to find products with specific terpenes

Most medical marijuana pharmacy websites offer lists of terpenes found in each of their flower products on the details page for that product. For example, The Apothecary Shoppe shows on their website that Mandarin Cookies, a flower product in the Ayo line from Ilera Holistic Health, contains Beta-Caryophyllene and Limonene.

Though not cannabis terpenes, there may be fragrance or flavors added to edibles and tinctures during the production process that might enhance your experience. For example, an edible with real chocolate can have a calming effect. A product with a citrus smell may improve your mood, increase alertness, and reduce feelings of fatigue. But, if you intend to include real terpenes, flower or vaporizers (vapes) are the most effective way to achieve the combination or “entourage” effect when using cannabis products.

If you’re ready to start your healing journey with cannabinoids, terpenes, and terpenoids, contact The Healing Clinics or click the button below to get started.

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